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The working principle of the controller

by:Sure     2021-08-18
There are two controllers with different structures due to different design methods. Micro-operation refers to operations that can't be decomposed anymore, and corresponding control signals (called micro-operation control signals or micro-operation commands) are always needed to perform micro-operations. A digital computer can basically be divided into two parts-control part and execution part. The controller is the control component, and the arithmetic unit and storage have two controllers with different structures due to different design methods. Micro-operations refer to operations that can't be decomposed anymore, and corresponding control signals (called micro-operation control signals or micro-operation commands) are always required for micro-operations. A digital computer can basically be divided into two parts-control part and execution part. The controller is the control component, and the arithmetic unit, memory, and peripheral devices are the execution components relative to the controller. One connection between the control part and the execution part is through the control line. The control component sends various control commands to the execution component through the control line, usually this kind of control command is called a micro command, and the operation performed by the execution component after receiving the micro command is called a micro operation. Another connection between the control part and the execution part is feedback information. The execution component reflects the operation situation to the control component through the feedback line, so that the control component issues new micro-commands according to the status of the execution component, which is also called 'status test'. Micro-operations are basic operations in the execution unit. Due to the structure of the data path, micro-operations can be divided into two types: controller compatibility and repulsion. In a CPU cycle of the machine, a group of micro-commands that realize a certain operation function constitute a micro-instruction. The general microinstruction format consists of two parts: operation control and sequence control. The operation control part is used to send out control signals for managing and directing the work of the whole machine. The sequence control part is used to determine the address of the next microinstruction. In fact, the function of a machine instruction is realized by a sequence of many microinstructions. This sequence of microinstructions is usually called a microprogram. Since the microprogram is composed of microinstructions, when the current microinstruction is executed. The address of the subsequent microinstruction must be pointed out so that after the current microinstruction is executed, the next microinstruction can be fetched and executed. Combination logic controller and microprogram controller, both controllers have their strengths and weaknesses. The combinatorial logic controller is cumbersome to design and has a complicated structure. Once the design is completed, it cannot be modified or expanded, but it is fast. The microprogram controller is easy to design, simple in structure, and easy to modify or expand. To modify the function of a machine instruction, you only need to reprogram the corresponding microprogram; to add a machine instruction, you only need to add a microprogram to the control memory. However, it is done by executing a micro process. The specific comparison is as follows: the controller model combinatorial logic controller, also known as the hard-wired controller, is composed of logic circuits and completely relies on hardware to realize the function of instructions.
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