On the Development and Current Situation of Measuring
Metrology is a tool for humans to understand the material world around them, and it is an important technical and management foundation in modern human civilization. The development of metrology instruments involves all walks of life, thousands of households, and penetrates into every corner of human life.
Measuring instruments originally refer to precision equipment specially used to measure the pressure, flow and temperature of water, gas, electricity and oil. Including thousands of products, in the last 20 years of the last century, with the development of microelectronic technology and communication technology. According to science, modern measurement includes scientific measurement, legal measurement, and engineering measurement. The task of scientific measurement is to develop and establish basic measurement standard devices, ensure the transmission of value and traceability, and provide basic guarantee for legal measurement and engineering lecturers. The task of legal measurement is to supervise the measurement activities of important measuring instruments and commodities related to national economy and people's livelihood by the government's competent administrative department of measurement in accordance with the law to ensure the accuracy of relevant measurement values. The task of engineering measurement is to trace the value of other measurement activities of the whole society, provide measurement calibration, and detection services. On this basis, we are specifically divided into geometric measurement, temperature measurement, mechanical measurement, electromagnetic measurement, optical measurement, acoustic measurement , Electronic measurement, time frequency measurement, ionizing radiation measurement, chemical measurement. There are more than 6,000 measuring instruments enterprises in my country, and has formed an industrial system with a complete range of categories, a certain technical foundation and production scale, and has become the second largest measuring instrument manufacturing country in Asia except Japan. Since the Ninth Five-Year Plan, the general situation of my country's measuring instruments industry has moved forward. The products keep pace with the international development in the development direction of miniaturization, integration, intelligence, bus, etc., and a number of new products with advanced technology have emerged, and the rise of a number of private enterprises with considerable scale is the development of China's measuring instrument industry. New power. It should be clearly seen that although China's measurement instrument industry has developed to a certain extent, it is far from meeting the growing and urgent needs of national economic scientific research, national defense construction, and social life. China's measurement instrument products, most of them It belongs to the mid-to-low-end technical level, and the key indicators such as reliability and stability have not yet met the requirements. High-end, large-scale instruments and equipment are almost all dependent on imports, mid-range products and many key parts, foreign companies also occupy more than 60% of the domestic market share .
Factors restricting the development of my country's measuring instruments industry. The development of measuring instruments in my country lags behind, there are many problems, and facing a severe situation, the main factors are concentrated in the following four aspects:
1. The progress of technological innovation and its industrialization has been slow. Modern metrology is a highly integrated product of light, machine, electricity, computer and many basic disciplines. It is very sensitive to new technologies. It is one of the categories of modern industry products that update the frequency of new technology applications and develop rapidly. The introduction of new products, especially in today's information age, competition is becoming increasingly fierce. If you slow down your development slightly, you will be left behind. Today, which has entered the 21st century, the general level of China's measuring instruments still remains at the international level in the early 1980s. Almost all large-scale and high-end instruments and equipment rely on imports. Many urgently needed special instruments are still blank. There are many difficulties in quality that need to be overcome. The stagnation of scientific and technological innovation and its industrialization is a 'bottleneck' that restricts the development of China's metering instrument industry, and there are three main factors that restrict the stagnation of the scientific and technological innovation and development of China's metering instrument industry: the first is the serious shortage of scientific research funds; The second is the lack of talents; the third is the lack of an effective combination of officials, industry, education, research, comprehensive, and use.
Second, product stability and reliability have not been solved for a long time.
my country's measurement products, including industrial automation instrument systems, communication instruments, etc., although the technical indicators are not too large compared with similar foreign products, but the stability and reliability are not high. Greatly limits the scope and credibility of my country's measurement products, the main reasons are three aspects:
(1) Long-term neglect of basic technology research and development.
(2) The quality of domestic general-purpose parts and basic parts is not enough.
(3) The quality control and management of the products by the enterprises are weak, but the product quality is not enough.
3. The old system restricts the development of the enterprise
The old system is a common problem that restricts my country's economy, especially the development of state-owned enterprises. The instrument industry is no exception. A considerable number of state-owned enterprises, unable to break free from the historical burden of students due to the long-term constraints of the old system, lost vitality in the market competition, and suffered a serious decline in production and operation. A large number of key enterprises struggled on the line of life and death Therefore, accelerating the reform of the system is one of the important ways of development.
4. The development of the measuring instrument industry is restricted by the objective environment. Its main manifestations are:
(1) Excessive taxation. Measurement product enterprises are generally not large in scale, production volume is not large, and the total output value and economic benefits are not high. However, modern measurement instruments and meters have a huge pulling effect on the national economy and produce incalculable multiplier benefits. For industries with such special attributes, 17% value-added tax is levied like other industries, 33% income tax and the same proportion of tariffs are taxed excessively.
(2) Governments at all levels, including industry authorities and banks, taxation, industry and commerce, and other departments, have insufficient knowledge and support for the development of the measurement product industry.
(3) Lack of procurement policies to support the development of national industries.
(4) Poor basic industry capacity in my country. Including product quality, service ability and credibility are poor, which directly affects the development of the industry.
Countermeasures and suggestions for revitalizing my country's measuring instruments industry. In order to revitalize the development of industry, the state should consult with the relevant departments of the State Planning Commission, Economic and Trade Commission, Ministry of Science and Technology, and Ministry of Finance to formulate the necessary support policies. Modern measurement integrates various high-tech achievements. To develop modern measuring instruments, we must concentrate excellent talents and invest huge amounts of money. Therefore, we need a group of large companies with considerable economic strength and famous brands. As the leading enterprises, they will promote the development of the entire industry and reform state-owned enterprises as soon as possible. Inject new vitality. Because the instrument industry is generally small in size and has a short history, the 'burden' is relatively light, and the product structure is easy to adjust. Therefore, the difficulty of restructuring is relatively small. It is recommended that the state accelerate the pace of restructuring of state-owned enterprises. It can put forward clear requirements to promote measurement. The development of the instrument industry will have a positive impetus.